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บทความเกจวัดแรงดัน

Improvement of preventive hearth safety at a tank farm

Tank farms are used for the storage of highly flammable and explosive substances; Consequently, preventive fireplace safety is of major importance. When rehabilitation of such a tank farm is deliberate, contractors typically suggest in depth – and thus costly – measures. A fire-protection answer developed by TÜV SÜD demonstrates that an equal degree of security can be reached with a much more cost-effective resolution. A central function in damage limitation is performed by early fireplace detection utilizing thermographic cameras.
Numerous tank farms throughout Germany retailer petrol, diesel, kerosene or liquefied petroleum fuel (LPG). In contact with air, these highly flammable substances can form explosive mixtures. Given this, tank farms require particular measures within the area of preventive fire protection. If rehabilitation of fire-protection systems turns into necessary at an older tank farm, far-reaching measures must be taken, not only by the use of precaution but also to exclude attainable liability risks. And but not every measure that is technologically possible can be essential in case of a rehabilitation, as can be seen from the example of a tank farm in Bavaria, Germany.
The tank farm is positioned at a basin of a river port in Bavaria. The a half of the tank farm in want of rehabilitation covers 24 tanks with a storage quantity of between 600 and a couple of,000 cubic metres. The tank farm is used for intermediate storage of extremely flammable fluids with flame points of < 21 degrees Celsius, as outlined within the German hazardous substances laws. In hearth inspections and on-site inspections after incidents, the inspectors had recognized main non-conformities within the fire-extinguishing system. To substitute the outdated and non-conforming system, an engineering agency submitted an intensive listing of measures. หลักการทำงานของเกจ์วัดแก๊ส represented a very cost-intensive resolution, requiring a full rehabilitation utilizing traditional extinguishing systems. For the tank-farm working company, the prices of implementing these measures would have added as much as 1.7 million euros.
In hearth safety, the problem lies in connecting well-founded technological information and legal know-how. In follow this implies harmonising reasonable engineering companies and legal purposes to acquire a cohesive, economically feasible and easily carried out fire-protection concept.
Alternative solution developed by TÜV SÜD
At the working company’s request, TÜV SÜD’s third-party experts validated the individual measures and the cost-effectiveness of the rehabilitation plan submitted by the engineering agency. Owing to the large variety of deficiencies identified in the tank farm, the experts first ready a list of priorities with the measures essential to fulfil the security necessities and achieve the safety objectives. They arrived at the conclusion that not all of the proposed measures truly needed to be implemented. Starting from this discovering, they then drew up an alternate fire-protection idea that may in the end reduce the projected prices by one third.
TÜV SÜD’s rehabilitation plan included the fire-protection infrastructure already in place at the tank farm, corresponding to a non-automatic foam extinguishing system with a total foaming-agent provide of 10,500 litres distributed across two tanks, two submerged pumps within the port basin with a pump capacity of 180 m3 per hour to ensure water supply for fireplace combating and sprinkling the shells and the roofs of the tanks, handbook triggering of the shut-off valves and a transformer station powered by the regional power provider. The feed-in of emergency energy was effected by the local professional hearth division.
The engineering firm, in contrast, had deliberate to exchange the whole fire-extinguishing system. They wished to put in three cellular extinguishing-agent distribution methods in container kind for remote managed sprinkling and foaming of the tanks. This solution would have required the set up of recent electrical, operational and management techniques as properly as new pipe routes connecting the extinguishing-agent distribution systems with the fire-fighting systems in the tank fields. The costs for the three extinguishing-agent distribution techniques in container kind alone would have added up to round 1.2 million euros.
Incipient fire combating scenario with intact energy supply and free access to the tank farm.
Implementation of three packages of measures
The alternative rehabilitation idea developed by TÜV SÜD, which also met the requirements of the Bavarian Building Code (BayBo [1]), offered for three essential packages of measures to attain the protection and security aims.
First, set up of a fully automated infrared measuring system made by DIAS Infrared to ensure early fire detection. The system’s seven thermographic cameras are put in on pan-tilt models. They detect changes in temperature on the surfaces of the tanks made of different materials and positioned in the space monitored by the cameras, before these changes in temperature can cause a fire. As the cameras can transfer, the areas to be monitored can be divided into sectors. The cameras then approach these sectors cyclically in sequence. To protect the cameras in opposition to exterior influences, they’re housed in ventilated and heated weatherproof enclosures (Fig. 1). Monitoring focuses totally on the safety devices of the tanks, pumps and motors and on the filling systems on the tank-farm premises. The control room on the tank farm and the local skilled fire division are notified immediately as quickly as the temperature exceeds a certain limit. The measure bundle additionally contains remote triggering of the extinguishing-agent provide from the control centre and automation of the security devices.
Incipient fire fighting scenario with power loss the place entry to the tank farm is blocked by a cargo train.
In addition, it covers rehabilitation of the sprinkler and foam-extinguisher system. In this context, TÜV SÜD’s solution offered for substitute of the leaking and corroded pipe sections with new pipes and for installation of three fixed foam-extinguishing techniques in the form of foam screens to fight incipient fires directly. In addition, a cell foam monitor was planned as a backup.
A third focus area considerations safeguarding the ability supply required for early hearth detection and fireplace preventing. According to the regional power provider, energy outages may have a period of a minimal of half-hour. Given this, the tank-farm needed an impartial power supply system that was ready to ensure power supply for no less than 2 hours. The specialists relied on battery buffering and a diesel operated emergency power unit to unravel this drawback.
Fire safety should ensure achievement of the protection aims
Protection goals and equivalent safety level reached
The fire-protection solution introduced by TÜV SÜD was agreed with each the tank farm’s operating firm, the municipal authority and the professional hearth department. The three measure packages additionally complied with the required safety goals and the protection ranges. And in the end, they proved far less expensive than the solution initially proposed. Since rehabilitation of the tank farm, early fireplace detection along side improved fire-protection infrastructure has become a central a half of injury limitation. Since the rehabilitation idea was carried out, the tank-farm’s working company – working with the professional fire division – has been in a place to effectively counteract all potential scenarios of incipient fireplace successfully and at an early stage, even in circumstances of power loss or when access to the tank farm is blocked (see Figures 2 and 3).
For extra information, go to www.tuev-sued.de/is or www.dias-infrared.de
Classification beneath the Bavarian Building Code (Bayerische Bauordnung, BayBo)
Tank farms are installations of a particular sort and use (special structures). Their operation involves the handling and storing of extremely explosive or flammable substances. Protection measures and safety precautions thus not only fall inside the working company’s responsibility however are also a matter of public curiosity. Given this, the BayBO stipulates requirements together with materials necessities which, as “General clauses of fireplace protection”, help to support the protection goals outlined in Article 12. However, according to article 3 (1) deviations from the technical building regulations are attainable if an alternative resolution is found that is equivalent when it comes to fulfilling the overall necessities in paragraph 1. In different phrases, the necessities laid down within the Building Code are deemed complied with if the widely recognised rules of architecture and expertise are fulfilled.
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